This is a brief account of Neurosurgery in India. Prior to 1949, Neurosurgery was being practised by General Surgeons. With the return of Professor Jacob Chandy to the Christian Medical College, Vellore in 1949 modern neurosurgery was born and progressed, and today there are more than 180 neurosurgeons in India. Even so, the ratio works out to one neurosurgeon for every 3,600,000 individuals! Conditions commonly encountered such as hydrocephalus, craniovertebral anomalies, pyogenic, fungal and tuberculous infections of the central nervous system, and fluorosis are being discussed. Stereotaxic surgery for pain, epilepsy, behaviour disorders and involuntary movements is being practised at several centres especially at Madras. Following the workshops conducted by Professor Pia and his co-worker Professor Grote , enthusiasm for microneurosurgery has waxed.